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朱永新:未来学习中心会取代学校吗?

【字体: 】【2020-9-17】】 阅读次数: 次  【编辑:网宣室】  【关 闭

    GUANYUJIAOYU,QUANSHIJIEJIHUMEIYOUYIGEGUOJIADERENDUIZIJIGUOJIADEJIAOYUSHIWANQUANMANYIDE。

    JISHINIANLAI,SHIJIESHANGXUDUOGUOJIAFABULEWUSHUBAOGAO,HUHUANBIANGEJIAOYU;XUDUOZHENGFUCHUTAILEDALIANGZHENGCE,XIWANGGAIBIANJIAOYU。

    JIAOYUYAOXIANGJIEJUERENDEWENTI,HAIYOUMANZHANGDEYIDUANLUYAOZOU。BUYAOZHIWANGWOMENTONGGUOXINXIJISHUDEGEMINGJIUNENGBAJIAOYUWENTIJIEJUELE。ZHEISHIBUKENENGDE、BUQIESHIJIDE。

    NEIME,RUHECAINENGBIANGEJIAOYUDEJIEGOUNI?ZHEIJIUXUYAODUIXUEXIAOJINXINGZHONGGOU。QISHI,XUEXIAOBINGBUSHIRENLEIYIKAISHIJIUYOUDE。RENHEYIGESHIWUZONGSHIYOUTACHANSHENG、FAZHAN、XINGSHENG、SHUAILUOHEXIAOWANGDEZHOUQI,WOXIANGXINXUEXIAOYEBULIWAI。WOMENZHIDAO,XIANDAIXUEXIAOZHIDUSHIBANSUIZHEDAGONGYESHIDAICHANSHENGDE,TADEMAOBINGSUIZHESHEHUIDEFAZHANHEKEXUEJISHUDEJINBUYIJINGRIYIZHANGXIAN,CONG20SHIJI60NIANDAIKAISHI,JIUYOURENKAISHI“CHANGSHUAI”XUEXIAO,RENWEIXUEXIAOGAI“SI”LE。QIZHONGYIGEDAIBIAORENWUJIAOYILIQI。TASHUO:“DUOSHAODAIYILAI,WOMENQITUTONGGUOTIGONGYUELAIYUEDUODEJIAOYU,SHIZHEIGESHIJIEBIANDEGENGMEIHAO,KESHIQIJINWEIZHI,ZHEIZHONGNULISHIBAILE。”TAHUYU,YINGGAISHIJIAOYUZHEXIANGYOUXUANZEJIAOYUDEQUANLI,CHENGWEIJIJIDEXIAOFEIZHE,YINGGAIWEIMEIYIGERENCHUANGZAOYIZHONGJIANGSHENGHUODESHIJIANZHUANBIANCHENGXUEXI、FENXIANGHEYANGYUDEJIHUI。

    YANGELAISHUO,XUEXIAOYONGYUANBUHUIZHENZHENGDI“XIAOWANG”,DANSHIXUEXIAODEZHUANXINGYIJIXUEXIAOZUOWEIJIAOYUZIYUANTIGONGZHEDEWEIYIDIWEIJIANGSHOUDAOTIAOZHAN,ZHEISHIBIRANDE。XIANZAI,ZHONGDUODEKEWAIBUXIJIGOU——CONG“XINDONGFANG”DAO“HAOWEILAI”,ZHONGDUODEWANGLUOJIAOYUJIGOU——CONGHUJIANGWANGDAO“GENSHEIXUE”,DOUZAIKUAISUJUEQI。WEILAI,ZHEIXIEJIGOUKENENGJIUSHIXIANDAIXUEXIAODE“JUEMUREN”。DANGRAN,YANGEDISHUO,HUOZHEWOMENYONGGENGWEILIXINGDEMUGUANGLAISHENSHI,TAMENSHIYUXIANDAIXUEXIAOJIAOZHIYIQI,ZHENGZAICHUANGZAOYITAOXINDEJIAOYUSHENGTAIXITONG,CHUANGZAOYIZHONGMIANXIANGWEILAIDEJIAOYUMOSHI。

    ZAISHIJIEGEGUO,GEZHONGCHUANGXINXINGDEXUEXIAOYEQIAORANCHUXIAN。TANFANGLESHIJIESHANG50SUOQUANQIUZUIJUCHUANGXINXINGDE“21SHIJIXUEXIAO”DEXIBANYAJIAOYUXINLIXUEJIAAIERNANDUOMIAOXIELEYIXIETAKANDAODEHUAMIAN:MEIGUOSHENGDIEGEDEGAOZHONGSHENGMENYIJINGXIGUANYUZAIKETANGSHANGDONGSHOUWANCHENGYIXIEYUGAOKEJIXIANGGUANDEXIANGMU,LIRUZHIZUOJIXIESHOUBEI、JIANYIJIQIREN,HUOSHEJIYIZUOQIAO;ZAIAODALIYAXINIDEXUEXICHUANGXINZHONGXIN,JIAOSHIHEXUESHENGMENYIQIJUEDINGSHANGKEDESHIJIANBIAO,BINGZAIKERONGNAJINBAIMINGXUESHENGDE“CHAOJIJIAOSHI”XIDIERZUOTANTAOWENTI;ZAIRUIDIANDECHUANGXINXINGJIAOYUJIGOUWEITELAXUEXIAO,BUZAIYOUFENGBIDEJIAOSHI、HEIBAN,XUESHENGMENKEYIZAIXUEXIAOZHONGZIYOULIUDONG,LOUTISHANG、SHAFASHANG、KAODIANSHANG……RENHEJIAOLUODOUKEYICHENGWEIXUEXIDELIXIANGCHANGSUO;DANMAIDEAOLEISITAXUEYUANYONGYOUYIZUOSHEJIQIANWEIDE8CENGJIAOXUEDALOU,TASHIBOLI、MUCAIDENGJIANCAIYUGAOKEJIDEJIEHE,RANGSUOYOUJIAOXUEKONGJIANDOUJIANYUETOUMING、YIMULERAN,GAIXUEYUANBUJINXINGCHUANTONGSHOUKE,ERSHIRANGSHISHENGMENYIQIXIEZUO,ZAI80~100FENZHONGNEIWANCHENGZHIDINGDEXIANGMU。BUJINZAIGUOWAI,ZAIZHONGGUOYEYOUXUDUOXINXINGDEXUEXIAOHEJIAOYUMOSHIZAIQIAORANCHUXIAN。WEIYUBEIJINGDAXUEFUZHONGDETANYUEXUEYUAN,XUESHENGZAIXIANSHANGPINGTAIANZHAOZIJIDEJINDUXUEXIXUEKEZHISHI,ZAIYUANZHUODUIHUAZHONGHELAOSHIGONGTONGTANTAOYIGEZHEXUEWENTI,HUOSHIZAIXIANGMUZHONGKAIFAYIKUANNENGGOUJIEJUEZHENSHISHEHUIWENTIDECHANPIN。ZAISUZHOUYOUYIQUNBOSHIFUMU,CAIQUZIZHUSHIJIAOYUFANGSHI,YONGZIJIZUISHANZHANGDEXUEKEYUJINENGLUNLIUJIAOZIJIDEHAIZI。

    “WEILAIBUSHIWOMENYAOQUDEDIFANG,ERSHIWOMENZHENGZAICHUANGZAODEDIFANG”。QISHI,NEIMEDUOXUEXIAOTIZHIZHIWAIJIAOYUJIGOUDECHUXIAN,NEIMEDUO“WANGHONG”JIAOSHIDECHUXIAN,NEIMEDUOXIAOGUIMOCHUANGXINXUEXIAODECHUXIAN,YIJINGZAIXIANGWOMENYUSHIJIAOYUBIANGEDELIUXIANG。WEILAIBINGBUYAOYUAN,GUANJIANSHIYAOYOUCHUANGXINSIWEI。XUDUOGUOQUBUGANXIANGXIANGDESHIQING,ZAIHULIANWANGSHIDAISHIZUODEDAODE。ZAISHIJIEGEGUO,ZAIZHONGGUODEXUDUODIFANG,YIJINGYOUHENDUORENQIAOQIAOJINXINGZHEIYANGHUONEIYANGDEBIANGEYUCHUANGZAO。

    JIYOUKENENG,ZAIMOUYITIANZAOCHEN,WOMENTUIKAIJIAOYUDECHUANGHU,JIUHUITURANFAXIAN——XINDEJIAOYUSHIJIETUJINGYIRANZHANXIANZAIWOMENMIANQIAN。

    WEILAIXUEXIAODEMOYANG

    CONG“XUEXIAOXIAOWANG”LUNTICHUYILAIDEBANGEDUOSHIJI,RENMENCONGLAIMEIYOUFANGQIGAIZAOXUEXIAODEMENGXIANG。ZHEIGEMENGXIANG,ZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGJIANGCHEDIGAIBIANWOMENDEXUEXIAO,GAIBIANWOMENDEJIAOYU,GAIBIANWOMENDEXUEXI。

     FENGMISHIJIEDEJIAOYUJILUPIAN《WEIHAIZIZHONGSUJIAOYU》DEZHIPIANRENTAIDE•DINGTESHIMISIZAI《WEILAIDEXUEXIAO》YISHUZHONGZHICHU:“CHUANTONGXUEXIAOYIYOUZHEBAINIANLISHIDEGONGCHANGMOSHIWEIJICHU,FEICHANGSHANYUPEIYANGSHIHEGONGYESHEHUIDELAODONGLI,ERGONGYESHEHUISUOSUZAODESHIJIEZAOYIBUFUCUNZAI。CHUANTONGXUEXIAOZHENGZHAYULIANGLEIDAHUANJINGBEIJINGZHIZHONG,YILEISHIJUNIYUGUOQUBUKENZIBADECHUANTONGJIAOYUTIXI,LINGYILEISHIZHENGZAIBUDUANSUZAOWEILAIZOUXIANGDECHUANGXINSHIJIE。”YINCI,XIANZAIBAIZAIWOMENMIANQIANDELIANGGEXUANZE,YIGESHIJIXUZOUCHUANTONGJIAOYUMOSHIZHEITIAOLAOLU,JIXUJIZIJIBUDUANXUNZHAOJIEKOU,BAHAIZIMENPILIANGSONGJINJIAOYUJIQIZHIZHONG,“DENGZHEZHEIXIEJIQICHANCHUDAPIHAOWUJINENGHEMUBIAOGANDENIANQINGREN,RANHOUYANKANZHETAMENWANGTOUPIAOXIANGLIRENGSHOULIUDAN,QUESHUSHOUWUCE”。LINGWAIYIGESHIDAPOZHEIYIQIE,FADONGYICHANGZHENZHENGDEJIAOYUBIANGE,ZHEIYANGDEHUA,WOMENDEHAIZIJIUNENGGOUHUANXINGZISHENQIANZANGDETIANFUYULILIANG,KAITUOCHUCHONGSHIERJINGCAIDERENSHENGZHILU,QUXIANGBANFAJIEJUEWOMENZHEIDAIRENYILIUJITAMENDEZHUDUONANTI。

    QISHI,ZAIZHEILIANGGEXUANZEMIANQIAN,WOMENMEIYOUXUANZE。ZAIDINGTESHIMISIKANLAI,CHUANTONGXUEXIAOBUGUOSHIJIANGHUADEJIAOYUTIZHIDAZAOCHULAIDE“ZHILAOHU”,SHI“CHUANGXINSHIDAIDEBOWUGUANWENWU”。ERFADONGBIANGEDAPOZHEIYIJIANGHUADETIZHIDELILIANG,YIDINGSHILAIZIMINJIANDECAOGENXINGDONG。

    TADEYUYANBUSHIKONGXUELAIFENG。YINWEIZHEIBENSHUYUQISHUOSHIXIECHULAIDE,BURUSHUOSHIZOUCHULAIDE。WEILEWANCHENGZHEIBUZHUZUO,TAZOUBIANLEMEIGUODE50GEZHOU,FANGWENLE200DUOSUOXUEXIAO。ZHEIBENSHUDEYINGWENSHUMING“What School Could Be?”,ZHIYIWEIZHONGWENYINGGAISHI“XUEXIAONENGGOUCHENGWEISHENMEYANGZI?”。ZAITAZOUFANGDEZHUDUOXUEXIAOZHONG,TAKANDAOLEWEILAIDEFANGXIANGHEQUSHI。ZHEIGEFANGXIANGHEQUSHI,YESHIWOZAIZHEIBENSHUZHONGJIANGYAOWEIDAJIAJIESHAODE。

    WORENWEI,WEILAIXUEXIAOHUIYOUZHEIYANGYIXIEXINDEBIANHUA:

    DIYI,XIANZAIDEXUEXIAO(school)JIANGYANBIANCHENGWEIXUEXIZHONGXIN(learning center),CHUANTONGDEXUEXIAOGAINIANJIANGBEIXINDEXUEXIZHONGXINQUDAI,RENMENBUBIMEITIANANSHIQUXUEXIAO,BUBIANBUJIUBANDIXUEXIGEMENKECHENG。

    DIER,XIANZAIDEJIAOXUE(teaching)GAINIANJIANGBIANWEIXUEXI(learning)DEGAINIAN。CHUANTONGDEJIAOSHIJIAO、XUESHENGXUEDEJIAOXUEHUODONGJIANGBIANWEIXUEXI。XUESHENGDEXUEXIHUODONGCHENGWEIXUEXIZHONGXINDEZHUXUANLV。

    DISAN,XIANZAIDEJIAOSHI(teacher)JIANGCHENGWEICHENGZHANGHUOBAN(partner)。CHUANTONGDEJIAOSHIJIAOSEJIANGBIANWEIZHUJIAOHUOZHECHENGZHANGHUOBAN。

    DISI,XIANZAIDEJIAOSHI(classroom)JIANGCHENGWEIXUEXISHI(learning room)。CHUANTONGDEJIAOSHIJIANGBIANCHENGXUESHENGXUEXIDECHANGSUO。

    DIWU,XIANZAIDEBIAOZHUNHUA(standardization)JIAOYUJIANGBIANWEIDINGZHIHUAHEGEXINGHUA(customization and personalization)DE。CHUANTONGXUEXIAOANZHAOTONGYIDEBIAOZHUNJIAOXUEHEPINGJIADEMOSHI,JIANGBIANWEIDINGZHIHUAHEGEXINGHUA。

    WEILAIDEXUESHENG,WANQUANNENGGOUZUODAOYIRENYIZHANGKEBIAO,ERQIESUISHIDIAOJIEXUEXINEIRONG,TAMENDEDABUFENSHIJIANSHIZAIJIALIHUOZHEZAIXUEXIAODETUSHUGUAN、XUEXISHIDENG,TONGGUOWANGLUOXUEXI、TUANDUIXUEXI,ZIJIJIEJUEXUEXIGUOCHENGZHONGDEDABUFENWENTI,ERQIEWANGLUOTONGGUODASHUJUDEFANGSHIZIDONGJILUTAMENDEXUEXIGUOCHENG,ZUOWEIPINGJIADEYIJU。

    WEILAIXUESHENGDEXUEXI,“SHIXINJIANGOUZHUYISUOCHANGDAODELINGCUNZHENGQUSHIDEXUEXI,SHIJIYUGERENXINGQUHEWENTIJIEJUEXUYAODEZIFAXUEXI,SHIDAGUIMODEWANGLUOXIEZUOXUEXI”。XUESHENGKENENGBUZAIXUYAOZHUANJIAXUEZHEWEITAMENTIGONGWANZHENGDEZHISHIJIEGOU,ERSHITONGGUOZIZHUDEXUEXIJIANGOUNENGMANZUZIJIXUYAODEGEXINGHUADEZHISHIJIEGOU。ZAIZHEIYANGDEXUEXIHEJIANGOUZHONG,KECHENG、XUEFEN、XUELI、XUEXIAODENGBUSHIZUIZHONGYAODE,WEIYIZHONGYAODESHI“WOXUEDAOLESHENME、WOFENXIANGLESHENME、WOJIANGOULESHENME、WOCHUANGZAOLESHENME”。

    TIAOWANGWEILAIXUEXIAO,WOMENHUIFAXIAN:CHUANTONGYIYIDEXUEXIAOKENENGBUCUNZAILE,DANSHIJIAOYUSHIYONGHENGDE,XUEXISHIYONGHENGDE。JIAOSHIDEZHIYEYEXUHUANLEYIGEMINGZI,DANSHIZUOWEIXUESHENGXUEXIDEHUOBAN,DUIYUWEILAIJIAOSHIDESUZHIYAOQIUHUIGENGGAO。

    WOWUFAYUCEZHEIYITIANZAINAGESHIKEDAOLAI,DANSHI,WOKEYIKENDINGDISHUO,ZHEIYITIANZHENGZAIBIJIN。CONGXIANZAIKAISHI,CHUANTONGDEJIAOXUEFANGSHIYUXINXINGDEXUEXIFANGSHIZHIJIANHUIYOUXIANGDANGZHANGDEYIDUANGONGCUNJIEDUAN。ZAIZHEIYIGUOCHENGZHONG,YOURENHUIDADANTANSUO,CONGERCHENGWEISHIDAIDENONGCHAOER;YOURENHUIGENSHANGBUFA,CONGERCHENGWEIGENJINZHE;YOURENWUDONGYUZHONG,ZHINENGCHENGWEILUOWUZHE,ZUIZHONGBEISHIDAISUOPAOQI。ZHIYOUKANQINGZHEIGEQUSHIDEREN,CAINENGZHENZHENGZHANLICHAOTOU,CAINENGZHIWEILAIJIAOYUZHINIUER。(ZHUANZIJIAOYUSIXIANGWANGGONGZHONGHAO)

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